The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology

Guide to Authors

Copyright Transfer and Disclosure Form

1. About

The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology (APJO) is the official publication of the Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology. Indexed in PubMed, Scopus and the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), the APJO positions itself as a first-class bimonthly (6 issues per year) peer-reviewed journal, representative of ophthalmic and visual science developments in the Asia-Pacific region. The APJO is a freely accessible journal as of January 2017.

The APJO welcomes the submission of original, previously unpublished manuscripts which describe clinical investigations, clinical observations and clinically relevant laboratory investigations.

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2. Editorial Policies

Authors and co-authors should take note of the following when preparing their manuscripts.

2.1  Originality

To be considered for publication, a submitted manuscript must be original, and must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere at the time of submission. If accepted, the manuscript must not be published elsewhere in similar form, in any language or in any medium, without the written consent of the APJO.

2.2  Authorship Responsibility

All listed authors and co-authors should each have significantly contributed to the production of the submitted manuscript to take public responsibility for it, and made every effort to ensure the validity of its content. There should not be more than eight authors and co-authors for one manuscript. Any alteration in authorship after submission must be approved by all authors and co-authors. This applies to additions, deletions, changes in authorship order or changes in differences of attributed contributions, and such alterations must be explained to the APJO. Authors and co-authors may be contacted to ascertain whether they have agreed to any alteration.

Authorship requirement: All authors and co-authors are required to read and sign a statement on (1) Authorship Responsibility, (2) Copyright Transfer and (3) Financial Disclosure which should be submitted together with the manuscript.

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2.3  Copyright

Upon manuscript submission, copyright is transferred from the authors and co-authors to the APJO. This transfer will only be null and void when the APJO provides official notice of its decision to not publish a submitted manuscript.

All content published in the APJO is covered by copyright. Users may reproduce or store copies of all or parts of the published content, provided that they are only for personal and non-commercial use. Such copies must include the following:

a   Bibliographic citation (including author attribution, date, article title, Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology and its URL

b   Copy of the copyright notice

The published content may only be used in the form presented by the APJO. It cannot be altered or varied, and cannot be used to as a basis for derivative works.

For other uses, users must request permission from the APJO. This also applies to the original authors and co-authors of published content who wish to reproduce any parts of it in their future works.

2.4  Permission

For content taken from any form of copyrighted material, such as direct quotations, figures or tables, authors and co-authors must have obtained written releases from the copyright owner(s) for its use, and would be responsible for any permission fees involved in obtaining them. The original source(s) must also be acknowledged in the submitted manuscript.

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2.5  Ethics

Manuscripts involving experimental investigations on human or animal subjects should include a statement on ethics approval with the following information:

a   Name and address of the ethics committee responsible

b   Name of the Chairperson of the ethics committee

c   Protocol number attributed by the ethics committee

d   Date of approval by the ethics committee

If no such committee was available, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should have been followed. For human subjects, authors and co-authors must have obtained written informed consent from the participants, and would be responsible for ensuring their anonymity unless otherwise stated in their consent. For animal subjects, animal care and licensing guidelines under which the investigation was performed must be reported in accordance with the Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) statement.

If ethics approval was not necessary, or if there was any deviation from the stated standard ethical requests, authors and co-authors must state why this was the case.

2.6  Conflicts of Interest

Authors and co-authors must state in the manuscript all possible conflicts of interest, including financial, consultant, institutional and other relationships that might lead to bias or a conflict of interest. If this is not applicable, this should be explicitly stated as none declared.

2.7  Acknowledgement

Individuals who have substantially contributed to the manuscript but do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed and their function of contribution described in the Acknowledgement section. This includes, but is not limited to technical, writing, material, financial and general support. Written permission must be obtained from each individual prior to inclusion in the manuscript.

Authorship requirement: The corresponding author is required to read and sign a statement on Acknowledgement which should be submitted together with the manuscript.

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3. Manuscript Submission

All manuscripts must be submitted online through the APJO website at

First time users should register an account on the website. Upon successful registration, users will receive an email with their username and password.

Users may then log in to the system as an Author and submit manuscripts according to the provided instructions. They will also be able to track the progress of their manuscripts.

Before submission, authors and co-authors should ensure that their manuscripts comply with the following guidelines. Manuscripts that do not adhere to the stated guidelines may be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer-review.

3.1  General journal style

Authors and co-authors should refer to a current issue of the APJO for general guidance on style. In particular, they should take note of the following:

a   Manuscripts should be patterned after the American Medical Association Manual of Style (9th edition).

b   Stedman’s Medical Dictionary (27th edition) and Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (10th edition) should be used as standard references.

c   SI units should be used.

d   Drugs and therapeutic agents should be referred to by their accepted generic names, without abbreviations. Trade names should be capitalized and placed in parentheses after the generic names. To comply with trademark law, the name and location (city, state/country) of the manufacturer of such items should be included in the manuscript.
Only when generic names are unavailable should code numbers be used. The chemical names and structures of the drugs or therapeutic agents should also be provided.

3.2  Manuscript-specific requirements

The APJO publishes five types of manuscripts: original articles, review articles, annual reviews (by invitation only), editorials (by invitation only) and perspectives.

3.2.1   Original articles on both clinical and basic scientific research are welcome.

3.2.2   Review articles are systematic critical assessments of the literature published on a particular subject matter. Articles on recent hot topics would be most welcome.

3.2.3   Annual Reviews (by invitation only) are reviews of the literature published on a particular subject matter for the 12 months prior to the time of submission.

3.2.4   Editorials (by invitation only) provide a forum for interpretive, analytical or reflective opinions related to published content in the APJO, or statements about clinical, scientific or socioeconomic issues. They should be objective and dispassionate, but are likely to provide alternative points of view and some bias. For product-based perspectives, authors and co-authors are expected not to have any significant financial interest in the manufacturing company or its competitor(s).

3.2.5   Perspectives should contain personal viewpoints on topics with broad interests. They function like mini-editorials, reviewing the evidence supporting the use of a current technique, procedure, therapy and clinical approach, as well as new technology, critical issues and models that are worth replicating in the Asia-Pacific region. However, they should not be review articles. For product-based perspectives, authors and co-authors are expected not to have any significant financial interest in the manufacturing company or its competitor(s). Please see below for a summary of requirements for each type of manuscript.

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Original Article Review Article Perspective Annual Review Editorial
1 Length ≤18 double-spaced
typewritten text
≤26 double-spaced
typewritten text
≤18 double-spaced
typewritten text
≤80 double-spaced
typewritten text
2 Cover Letter State any special considerations, including but not limited to:

Details of related papers that have been published or submitted for publication.

Details of any previous reviews of submitted manuscript. Copies of reviews by either previous editors or reviewers should be submitted together with the authors and co-authors’ responses to these reviews as “Supplementary Documents”.

Submission of the above documents is encouraged and may expedite the review process.
3 Title Page Include:

Complete title of submitted manuscript

Authors and co-authors’ full names, highest academic degrees and affiliations

Name and complete contact details of corresponding author, including correspondence address, telephone number, fax number and email address

Conflicts of interest (if any)

Sources of support that require acknowledgement (if any)

4 Abstract Structured, including:



Methods (with statement on ethics approval and obtainment of informed consent from participants, if any)



Manuscripts without a structured abstract will be returned.
Unstructured Not required

≤250 words

No cited references

Limit use of abbreviations and acronyms

List 3 – 5 keywords

5 Text ≤4,000 words organized into headings:


Materials and Methods



≤6,000 words N/A ≤15,000 words ≤1,200 words

Pages should be numbered consecutively, with the introduction as the first page.

The text should contain concise internal headings in outline format.

Standard abbreviations may be used and should be defined on first mention in the text unless they are the standard units of measurement.

Authors may be requested to shorten submitted manuscripts when, in the opinion of the Editorial Board, the content does not justify the length.
6 Figures/tables ≤8 figures/tables ≤8 figures/tables ≤8 figures/tables N/A Use of figures/ tables is not encouraged.
Please refer to Section 3, Part C on Illustrations for detailed guidelines.
7 References ≤50 references ≤100 references ≤35 references ≤200 references ≤15 references
Please refer to Section 3, Part E on References for detailed guidelines.
8 Peer reviews ≥2 N/A

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3.3  Illustrations

Illustrations to be included in a submitted manuscript must not be embedded in the manuscript itself upon submission. Each illustration should be uploaded as separate files in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript. When submitting the manuscript, each illustration should also be labelled in this same order in the Description field.
Please see below for specific requirements.

3.3.1   Figures can take the forms of charts, graphs, diagrams, photographs, radiographs or their scanned counterparts. They should be cited consecutively in the manuscript.

A legend must be submitted, with the figures numbered in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript. The legend should be brief and specific, and should appear on a separate manuscript page after the references. The original source of any legends for previously published figures must also be acknowledged.

Authors and co-authors should take particular note of the following:

Figures should be saved as TIFF, JPG or PNG files.

Any white or black space surrounding the image should be cropped out.

Diagrams, drawings, graphs and other line art must be vector or saved at a resolution of at least 1,200dpi.

Photographs, radiographs and other halftone images must be saved at a resolution of at least 300dpi.

Photographs and radiographs with text must be saved as postscript or at a resolution of at least 600dpi.

Scale markers should be used in electron micrographs, and the type of stain used should be indicated.

3.3.2   Tables should be self-explanatory and should supplement, rather than duplicate, the material in the text. They should be cited consecutively in the manuscript and numbered in the same order.

Each table should be placed on a separate page and include the table title, appropriate column heads, and explanatory legends (including any definitions or abbreviations used).

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3.4  References

Authors and co-authors are responsible for accuracy of references, and should take particular attention to the following:

References should be cited in order of appearance.

References should be double-spaced and placed at the end of the manuscript.

If there are more than 3 authors, name only the first 3 authors and use ‘et al.’ to represent remaining authors.

Journal names should be abbreviated in accordance to the list of journals indexed in Index Medicus, which can also be accessed through

Only papers published or in press should be included in the reference list. Unpublished data or personal communication should be cited in parentheses in the text with the name(s) of the source(s) and the year.

Authors and co-authors may refer to the sample references below:

a. Journal Article

Boisjoly HM, Bernard PM, Dube I, et al. Effects of factors unrelated to tissue matching on corneal transplant endothelial rejection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989; 107: 647-54.

b. Book Chapter

Skuta GL, Organ RK. Corticosteriod-induced glaucoma. In: Ritch R, Shields MB, Krupin T, eds. The Glaucomas. St Louis: Mosby; 1996:1177-1188.

c. Entire Book

Gelatt KN, ed. Veterinary Ophthalmology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.

d. Software

Epi Info [computer program]. Version 6. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1194.

e. Online Journal

Friedman SA. Preeclampsia: a review of the role of prostaglandins. Obstet Gynecol [serial online]. January 1988; 71:22-37. Available from: BRS Information Technologies, McLean, VA. Accessed December 15, 1980.

f. Database

CANCERNET-PDQ [database online]. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. Updated March 19, 1996.

g. World Wide Web

Gostin LO. Drug use and HIV/AIDS [JAMA HIV/AIDS web site]. June 1, 1996. Available at: Accessed June 16, 1997.

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4. Manuscript Acceptance

Once a submitted manuscript has undergone peer-review, and been deemed acceptable for publication, the corresponding author will receive electronic page proofs to check the copyedited and typeset article before publication. These will be sent by email in the form of PDF files. Detailed instructions will be provided with the email for downloading and printing the files, and for faxing the corrected page proofs.

Changes that are stylistic or are a reworking of previously accepted material will not be allowed, and authors and co-authors may be charged for alterations to the proofs beyond those required to correct errors or to answer queries The APJO also reserves the right to deny any changes that do not affect the accuracy of the content. Proofs must be checked carefully and corrections and faxed within 24 to 48 hours of receipt. It is the authors and co-authors’ responsibility to ensure that there are no errors in the proofs.

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Copyright Transfer and Disclosure Form


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