The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology

Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology:

Issue 6, November/December 2018 Review Article

Diagnosis and Treatment of Myopic Maculopathy

Yokoi, Tae; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko



Author Information


From the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.


Reprints: Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1138-510, Japan. E-mail: k.ohno.oph@med.tmd.ac.jp.



Abstract


Visual impairment resulting from pathologic myopia is a serious issue worldwide. This is mainly due to the development of different types of myopic maculopathy. Despite being a major cause of visual impairment worldwide, myopic maculopathy was not consistently defined. To overcome this problem, in 2015 the Meta-Analysis for Pathologic Myopia Study Group proposed a simplified, uniform classification system for myopic maculopathy. Among several lesions of myopic maculopathy, myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is one of the most common and severe vision-threatening complications. Recent large clinical trials have reported a good initial efficacy for visual acuity improvement by application of anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for myopic CNVs. However, long-term clinical studies demonstrate a gradual decrease in the visual acuity gain and return to the baseline level due to the development of myopic CNV-related macular atrophy. Regarding visual impairment caused by advanced myopic chorioretinal atrophy, the only way to prevent blindness is to prevent myopia from developing or progressing at a young age before the axial length elongates extremely. As peripapillary diffuse atrophy in childhood may be an indicator of more advanced myopic chorioretinal atrophy in later life, some preventive measures should be considered in such children.





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